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Judaism

Assumptions: God has created all humanity in the image of God, meaning that human beings have the ability to understand, reason and choose. God has chosen the people of Israel to receive the law (Torah). The relationship between God and Israel is understood as a covenant or contract in which God binds himself to be Israel's God and Israel commits itself to do and hear the Torah.
  The Problem:  Humans have two impulses. The good impulse can be understood as one's moral conscience that tells one what one should do. The evil impulse is our selfish nature. It can be understood as the desire to satisfy personal needs (food, shelter, sex, etc.) without regard for the moral consequences of fulfilling those desires. The evil impulse is not necessarily bad since it was created by God. It can, however, lead to evil when not controlled by the good impulse. To keep the Torah is to follow the good impulse. The problem is that individually and collectively, the people of Israel fail to control the evil impulse and follow the good. Consequently, disorder, brokenness and alienation enter life.
The Cure: The cure is to follow the good impulse and control the evil impulse. The Torah or Law is God's special gift to Israel by which each person knows what is good. By following the Torah, Israel can live in harmony with God and with the universe. To resist evil and temptation requires more than human resources; rather it requires strength from God. Consequently, Judaism has emphasized the concept of redemption rather than salvation.  God is the redeemer who delivers his people. 
Over Judaism's long history, the concept of redemption has changed and evolved.  Modern Jewish thought emphasizes redemption as the ultimate triumph of good over evil. This redemption is understood in different ways by different groups and individual. For example, the concept of redemption has been associated with self-fulfillment, the eradication of human-made evil in society or the reestablishment of a sovereign Jewish state. In any case, the triumph of good over evil is achieved by a combination of human effort and the grace of God. Human effort is required and expected; but God is the one who helps the sinner to repent and who reaches out in love and grace so that individuals can keep the Torah. 
Type of Salvation: To a large extent, redemption in Judaism represents a this-worldly type of salvation: it involves the transformation of individuals and the people of Israel and ultimately the entire world. In Orthodox Judaism, however, redemption is also understood in terms of a physical resurrection and afterlife. Among non-orthodox Jews, the concepts of resurrection and the afterlife are virtually absent.